quartal harmony

Harmony based on the interval of a fourth, rather than thirds.

quintal harmony

Harmony based on the interval of a fifth, rather than thirds.


A vocal number that mimics the inflections of speech, found primarily in opera or oratorio.


“Rebirth.” The era from the mid-15th century to the end of the 16th century. The music was charactarized by freer forms, and a progression from modes toward major and minor scales and harmony.

Requiem Mass

A version of the Mass performed to commemorate the dead. The sections are: Introit, Kyrie, Gradual and Tract, Sequence (Dies Irae), Offertory, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, Communion and Responsory.


The progression of chords or notes from the dissonant to the consonant or point of rest.


The musical period roughly from 1820-1900, in which music progressed to a freer, more subjective form with increasing chromaticism, the use of folk themes, the introduction of more virtuosic solo music, and larger orchestras.


The fundamental note (I) of a chord or scale.